Geoinformatics Unit

Naoto YOKOYA

        

Current Position

Naoto Yokoya is the unit leader at Geoinformatics Unit, the RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project (AIP), Japan. He is a visiting associate professor at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. His research is focused on image processing and data fusion in remote sensing.
He is a member of the IEEE (2009), IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS), and IEEE GRSS Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee (IADF TC).
He is an associate editor of IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing.
He is the chair of the IEEE GRSS IADF TC and the secretary of the IEEE GRSS All Japan Joint Chapter.

Biography

2019 Apr - Present    Visiting Associate Professor, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan.
2018 Jan - Present    Unit Leader, RIKEN AIP, Japan
2015 Dec - 2017 Nov    Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow, DLR & TUM, Germany
2013 Jul - 2017 Dec    Assistant Professor, The University of Tokyo, Japan
2010 Oct - 2013 Mar    Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan

Journal Papers

  1. D. Hong, N. Yokoya, J. Chanussot, J. Xu, and X. X. Zhu, " Learning to propagate labels on graphs: An iterative multitask regression framework for semi-supervised hyperspectral dimensionality reduction ," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (accepted for publication), 2019.
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    Abstract: Hyperspectral dimensionality reduction (HDR), an important preprocessing step prior to high-level data analysis, has been garnering growing attention in the remote sensing community. Although a variety of methods, both unsupervised and supervised models, have been proposed for this task, yet the discriminative ability in feature representation still remains limited due to the lack of a powerful tool that effectively exploits the labeled and unlabeled data in the HDR process. A semi-supervised HDR approach, called iterative multitask regression (IMR), is proposed in this paper to address this need. IMR aims at learning a low-dimensional subspace by jointly considering the labeled and unlabeled data, and also bridging the learned subspace with two regression tasks: labels and pseudo-labels initialized by a given classifier. More significantly, IMR dynamically propagates the labels on a learnable graph and progressively refines pseudo-labels, yielding a well-conditioned feedback system. Experiments conducted on three widely-used hyperspectral image datasets demonstrate that the dimension-reduced features learned by the proposed IMR framework with respect to classification or recognition accuracy are superior to those of related state-of-the-art HDR approaches.

  2. D. Hong, J. Chanussot, N. Yokoya, J. Kang, and X. X. Zhu, " Learning shared cross-modality representation using multispectral-LiDAR and hyperspectral data ," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (accepted for publication), 2019.
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    Abstract: Due to the ever-growing diversity of the data source, multi-modality feature learning has attracted more and more attention. However, most of these methods are designed by jointly learning feature representation from multi-modalities that exist in both training and test sets, yet they are less investigated in absence of certain modality in the test phase. To this end, in this letter, we propose to learn a shared feature space across multi-modalities in the training process. By this way, the out-of-sample from any of multi-modalities can be directly projected onto the learned space for a more effective cross-modality representation. More significantly, the shared space is regarded as a latent subspace in our proposed method, which connects the original multi-modal samples with label information to further improve the feature discrimination. Experiments are conducted on the multispectral-Lidar and hyperspectral dataset provided by the 2018 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in comparison with several popular baselines.

  3. Y. Chen, W. He, N. Yokoya, and T.-Z. Huang, " Blind cloud and cloud shadow removal of multitemporal images based on total variation regularized low-rank sparsity decomposition ," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (accepted for publication), 2019.
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    Abstract: Cloud and cloud shadow (cloud/shadow) removal from multitemporal satellite images is a challenging task and has elicited much attention for subsequent information extraction. Regarding cloud/shadow areas as missing information, low-rank matrix/tensor completion based methods are popular to recover information undergoing cloud/shadow degradation. However, existing methods required to determine the cloud/shadow locations in advance and failed to completely use the latent information in cloud/shadow areas. In this study, we propose a blind cloud/shadow removal method for time-series remote sensing images by unifying cloud/shadow detection and removal together. First, we decompose the degraded image into low-rank clean image (surface-reflected) component and sparse (cloud/shadow) component, which can simultaneously and completely use the underlying characteristics of these two components. Meanwhile, the spatial-spectral total variation regularization is introduced to promote the spatial-spectral continuity of the cloud/shadow component. Second, the cloud/shadow locations are detected from the sparse component using a threshold method. Finally, we adopt the cloud/shadow detection results to guide the information compensation from the original observed images to better preserve the information in cloud/shadow-free locations. The problem of the proposed model is efficiently addressed using the alternating direction method of multipliers. Both simulated and real datasets are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for cloud/shadow detection and removal when compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

  4. A. Samat, N. Yokoya, P. Du, S. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Ge, G. Issanova, A. Saparov, J. Abuduwaili, and C. Lin, " Direct, ECOC, ND and END frameworks—which one is the best? An empirical study of Sentinel-2A MSIL1C image classification for arid-land vegetation mapping in the Ili River Delta, Kazakhstan ," Remote Sensing, vol. 11, no. 16, pp. 1953, 2019.
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    Abstract: To facilitate the advances in Sentinel-2A products for land cover from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imagery, Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument Level-1C (MSIL1C) images are investigated for large-scale vegetation mapping in an arid land environment that is located in the Ili River delta, Kazakhstan. For accurate classification purposes, multi-resolution segmentation (MRS) based extended object-guided morphological profiles (EOMPs) are proposed and then compared with conventional morphological profiles (MPs), MPs with partial reconstruction (MPPR), object-guided MPs (OMPs), OMPs with mean values (OMPsM), and object-oriented (OO)-based image classification techniques. Popular classifiers, such as C4.5, an extremely randomized decision tree (ERDT), random forest (RaF), rotation forest (RoF), classification via random forest regression (CVRFR), ExtraTrees, and radial basis function (RBF) kernel-based support vector machines (SVMs) are adopted to answer the question of whether nested dichotomies (ND) and ensembles of ND (END) are truly superior to direct and error-correcting output code (ECOC) multiclass classification frameworks. Finally, based on the results, the following conclusions are drawn: 1) the superior performance of OO-based techniques over MPs, MPPR, OMPs, and OMPsM is clear for Sentinel-2A MSIL1C image classification, while the best results are achieved by the proposed EOMPs; 2) the superior performance of ND, ND with class balancing (NDCB), ND with data balancing (NDDB), ND with random-pair selection (NDRPS), and ND with further centroid (NDFC) over direct and ECOC frameworks is not confirmed, especially in the cases of using weak classifiers for low-dimensional datasets; 3) from computationally efficient, high accuracy, redundant to data dimensionality and easy of implementations points of view, END, ENDCB, ENDDB, and ENDRPS are alternative choices to direct and ECOC frameworks; 4) surprisingly, because in the ensemble learning (EL) theorem, “weaker” classifiers (ERDT here) always have a better chance of reaching the trade-off between diversity and accuracy than “stronger” classifies (RaF, ExtraTrees, and SVM here), END with ERDT (END-ERDT) achieves the best performance with less than a 0.5% difference in the overall accuracy (OA) values, but is 100 to 10000 times faster than END with RaF and ExtraTrees, and ECOC with SVM while using different datasets with various dimensions; and, 5) Sentinel-2A MSIL1C is better choice than the land cover products from MODIS and Landsat imagery for vegetation species mapping in an arid land environment, where the vegetation species are critically important, but sparsely distributed.

  5. Y. Chen, W. He, N. Yokoya, and T.-Z. Huang, " Hyperspectral image restoration using weighted group sparsity regularized low-rank tensor decomposition ," IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics (accepted for publication), 2019.
    Quick Abstract

    Abstract: Mixed noise (such as Gaussian, impulse, stripe, and deadline noises) contamination is a common phenomenon in hyperspectral imagery (HSI), greatly degrading visual quality and affecting subsequent processing accuracy. By encoding sparse prior to the spatial or spectral difference images, total variation (TV) regularization is an efficient tool for removing the noises. However, the previous TV term cannot maintain the shared group sparsity pattern of the spatial difference images of different spectral bands. To address this issue, this study proposes a group sparsity regularization of the spatial difference images for HSI restoration. Instead of using L1 or L2-norm (sparsity) on the difference image itself, we introduce a weighted L2,1-norm to constrain the spatial difference image cube, efficiently exploring the shared group sparse pattern. Moreover, we employ the well-known low-rank Tucker decomposition to capture the global spatial-spectral correlation from three HSI dimensions. To summarize, a weighted group sparsity regularized low-rank tensor decomposition (LRTDGS) method is presented for HSI restoration. An efficient augmented Lagrange multiplier algorithm is employed to solve the LRTDGS model. The superiority of this method for HSI restoration is demonstrated by a series of experimental results from both simulated and real data, as compared to other state-of-the-art TV regularized low-rank matrix/tensor decomposition methods.

  6. D. Hong, N. Yokoya, J. Chanussot, and X. X. Zhu, " CoSpace: Common subspace learning from hyperspectral-multispectral correspondences ," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 4349-4359, 2019.
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    Abstract: With a large amount of open satellite multispectral (MS) imagery (e.g., Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8), considerable attention has been paid to global MS land cover classification. However, its limited spectral information hinders further improving the classification performance. Hyperspectral imaging enables discrimination between spectrally similar classes but its swath width from space is narrow compared to MS ones. To achieve accurate land cover classification over a large coverage, we propose a cross-modality feature learning framework, called common subspace learning (CoSpace), by jointly considering subspace learning and supervised classification. By locally aligning the manifold structure of the two modalities, CoSpace linearly learns a shared latent subspace from hyperspectral-MS (HS-MS) correspondences. The MS out-of-samples can be then projected into the subspace, which are expected to take advantages of rich spectral information of the corresponding hyperspectral data used for learning, and thus leads to a better classification. Extensive experiments on two simulated HS-MS data sets (University of Houston and Chikusei), where HS-MS data sets have tradeoffs between coverage and spectral resolution, are performed to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with previous state-of-the-art methods.

  7. W. He, N. Yokoya, L. Yuan, and Q. Zhao, " Remote sensing image reconstruction using tensor ring completion and total-variation ," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (accepted for publication), 2019.
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    Abstract: Time-series remote sensing (RS) images are often corrupted by various types of missing information such as dead pixels, clouds, and cloud shadows that significantly influence the subsequent applications. In this paper, we introduce a new low-rank tensor decomposition model, termed tensor ring (TR) decomposition, to the analysis of RS datasets and propose a TR completion method for the missing information reconstruction. The proposed TR completion model has the ability to utilize the low-rank property of time-series RS images from different dimensions. To furtherly explore the smoothness of the RS image spatial information, total-variation regularization is also incorporated into the TR completion model. The proposed model is efficiently solved using two algorithms, the augmented Lagrange multiplier (ALM) and the alternating least square (ALS) methods. The simulated and real data experiments show superior performance compared to other state-of-the-art low-rank related algorithms.

  8. Y. Xu, B. Du, L. Zhang, D. Cerra, M. Pato, E. Carmona, S. Prasad, N. Yokoya, R. Hansch, and B. Le Saux, " Advanced multi-sensor optical remote sensing for urban land use and land cover classification: Outcome of the 2018 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sens., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1709-1724, 2019.
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    Abstract: This paper presents the scientific outcomes of the 2018 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. The 2018 Contest addressed the problem of urban observation and monitoring with advanced multi-source optical remote sensing (multispectral LiDAR, hyperspectral imaging, and very high-resolution imagery). The competition was based on urban land use and land cover classification, aiming to distinguish between very diverse and detailed classes of urban objects, materials, and vegetation. Besides data fusion, it also quantified the respective assets of the novel sensors used to collect the data. Participants proposed elaborate approaches rooted in remote-sensing, and also in machine learning and computer vision, to make the most of the available data. Winning approaches combine convolutional neural networks with subtle earth-observation data scientist expertise.

  9. B. Adriano, J. Xia, G. Baier, N. Yokoya, S. Koshimura, " Multi-source data fusion based on ensemble learning for rapid building damage mapping during the 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami in Palu, Indonesia ," Remote Sensing, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 886, 2019.
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    Abstract: This work presents a detailed analysis of building damage recognition, employing multi-source data fusion and ensemble learning algorithms for rapid damage mapping tasks. A damage classification framework is introduced and tested to categorize the building damage following the recent 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami. Three robust ensemble learning classifiers were investigated for recognizing building damage from SAR and optical remote sensing datasets and their derived features. The contribution of each feature dataset was also explored, considering different combinations of sensors as well as their temporal information. SAR scenes acquired by the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 and Sentinel-1 sensors were used. The optical Sentinel-2 and PlanetScope sensors were also included in this study. A non-local filter in the preprocessing phase was used to enhance the SAR features. Our results demonstrated that the canonical correlation forests classifier performs better in comparison to the other classifiers. In the data fusion analysis, DEM- and SAR-derived features contributed the most in the overall damage classification. Our proposed mapping framework successfully classifies four levels of building damage (with overall accuracy > 90%, average accuracy > 67%). The proposed framework learned the damage patterns from a limited available human-interpreted building damage annotation and expands this information to map a larger affected area. This process including pre- and post-processing phases were completed in about 3 hours after acquiring all raw datasets.

  10. P. Ghamisi, B. Rasti, N. Yokoya, Q. Wang, B. Höfle, L. Bruzzone, F. Bovolo, M. Chi, K. Anders, R. Gloaguen, P. M. Atkinson, and J. A. Benedikt, " Multisource and Multitemporal Data Fusion in Remote Sensing ," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 6-39, 2019.
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  11. T. D. Pham, N. Yokoya, D. T. Bui, K. Yoshino, and D. A. Friess, " Remote sensing approaches for monitoring mangrove species, structure and biomass: opportunities and challenges ," Remote Sensing, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 230, 2019.
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    Abstract: The mangrove ecosystem plays a vital role in the global carbon cycle, by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of climate change. However, mangroves have been lost worldwide, resulting in substantial carbon stock losses. Additionally, some aspects of the mangrove ecosystem remain poorly characterized compared to other forest ecosystems due to practical difficulties in measuring and monitoring mangrove biomass and their carbon stocks. Without a quantitative method for effectively monitoring biophysical parameters and carbon stocks in mangroves, robust policies and actions for sustainably conserving mangroves in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation are more difficult. In this context, remote sensing provides an important tool for monitoring mangroves and identifying attributes such as species, biomass, and carbon stocks. A wide range of studies is based on optical imagery (aerial photography, multispectral, and hyperspectral) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Remote sensing approaches have been proven effective for mapping mangrove species, estimating their biomass, and assessing changes in their extent. This review provides an overview of the techniques that are currently being used to map various attributes of mangroves, summarizes the studies that have been undertaken since 2010 on a variety of remote sensing applications for monitoring mangroves, and addresses the limitations of these studies. We see several key future directions for the potential use of remote sensing techniques combined with machine learning techniques for mapping mangrove areas and species, and evaluating their biomass and carbon stocks.

  12. D. Hong, N. Yokoya, J. Chanussot, and X. X. Zhu, " An augmented linear mixing model to address spectral variability for hyperspectral unmixing ," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1923-1938, 2018.
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    Abstract: Hyperspectral imagery collected from airborne or satellite sources inevitably suffers from spectral variability, making it difficult for spectral unmixing to accurately estimate abundance maps. The classical unmixing model, the linear mixing model (LMM), generally fails to handle this sticky issue effectively. To this end, we propose a novel spectral mixture model, called the augmented linear mixing model (ALMM), to address spectral variability by applying a data-driven learning strategy in inverse problems of hyperspectral unmixing. The proposed approach models the main spectral variability (i.e., scaling factors) generated by variations in illumination or typography separately by means of the endmember dictionary. It then models other spectral variabilities caused by environmental conditions (e.g., local temperature and humidity, atmospheric effects) and instrumental configurations (e.g., sensor noise), as well as material nonlinear mixing effects, by introducing a spectral variability dictionary. To effectively run the data-driven learning strategy, we also propose a reasonable prior knowledge for the spectral variability dictionary, whose atoms are assumed to be low-coherent with spectral signatures of endmembers, which leads to a well-known low-coherence dictionary learning problem. Thus, a dictionary learning technique is embedded in the framework of spectral unmixing so that the algorithm can learn the spectral variability dictionary and estimate the abundance maps simultaneously. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real datasets are performed to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with previous state-of-the-art methods.

  13. D. Hong, N. Yokoya, N. Ge, J. Chanussot, and X. X. Zhu, " Learnable manifold alignment (LeMA) : A semi-supervised cross-modality learning framework for land cover and land use classification ," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 147, pp. 193-205, 2018.
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    Abstract: In this paper, we aim at tackling a general but interesting cross-modality feature learning question in remote sensing community - can a limited amount of highly-discriminative (e.g., hyperspectral) training data improve the performance of a classification task using a large amount of poorly-discriminative (e.g., multispectral) data? Traditional semi-supervised manifold alignment methods do not perform sufficiently well for such problems, since the hyperspectral data is very expensive to be largely collected in a trade-off between time and efficiency, compared to the multispectral data. To this end, we propose a novel semi-supervised cross-modality learning framework, called learnable manifold alignment (LeMA). LeMA learns a joint graph structure directly from the data instead of using a given fixed graph defined by a Gaussian kernel function. With the learned graph, we can further capture the data distribution by graph-based label propagation, which enables finding a more accurate decision boundary. Additionally, an optimization strategy based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is designed to solve the proposed model. Extensive experiments on two hyperspectral-multispectral datasets demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art methods.

  14. W. He and N. Yokoya, " Multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and -2 data fusion for optical image simulation ," ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 389, 2018.
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    Abstract: In this paper, we present the optical image simulation from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data using deep learning based methods. Two models, i.e., optical image simulation directly from the SAR data and from multi-temporal SAR-optical data, are proposed to testify the possibilities. The deep learning based methods that we chose to achieve the models are a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a residual architecture and a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN). We validate our models using the Sentinel-1 and -2 datasets. The experiments demonstrate that the model with multi-temporal SAR-optical data can successfully simulate the optical image, meanwhile, the model with simple SAR data as input failed. The optical image simulation results indicate the possibility of SAR-optical information blending for the subsequent applications such as large-scale cloud removal, and optical data temporal super-resolution. We also investigate the sensitivity of the proposed models against the training samples, and reveal possible future directions.

  15. L. Guanter, M. Brell, J. C.-W. Chan, C. Giardino, J. Gomez-Dans, C. Mielke, F. Morsdorf, K. Segl, and N. Yokoya, " Synergies of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy with other remote sensing approaches ," Surveys in Geophysics, pp. 1-31, 2018.
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    Abstract: Imaging spectroscopy (IS), also commonly known as hyperspectral remote sensing, is a powerful remote sensing technique for the monitoring of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere. Pixels in optical hyperspectral images consist of continuous reflectance spectra formed by hundreds of narrow spectral channels, allowing an accurate representation of the surface composition through spectroscopic techniques. However, technical constraints in the definition of imaging spectrometers make spectral coverage and resolution to be usually traded by spatial resolution and swath width, as opposed to optical multispectral (MS) systems typically designed to maximize spatial and/or temporal resolution. This complementarity suggests that a synergistic exploitation of spaceborne IS and MS data would be an optimal way to fulfill those remote sensing applications requiring not only high spatial and temporal resolution data, but also rich spectral information. On the other hand, IS has been shown to yield a strong synergistic potential with non-optical remote sensing methods, such as thermal infrared (TIR) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR). In this contribution we review theoretical and methodological aspects of potential synergies between optical IS and other remote sensing techniques. The focus is put on the evaluation of synergies between spaceborne optical IS and MS systems because of the expected availability of the two types of data in the next years. Short reviews of potential synergies of IS with TIR and LiDAR measurements are also provided.

  16. J. Xia, N. Yokoya, and A. Iwasaki, " Fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR data with a novel ensemble classifier ," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 957-961, 2018.
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    Abstract: Due to the development of sensors and data acquisition technology, the fusion of features from multiple sensors is a very hot topic. In this letter, the use of morphological features to fuse an HS image and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital surface model (DSM) is exploited via an ensemble classifier. In each iteration, we first apply morphological openings and closings with partial reconstruction on the first few principal components (PCs) of the HS and LiDAR datasets to produce morphological features to model spatial and elevation information for HS and LiDAR datasets. Second, three groups of features (i.e., spectral, morphological features of HS and LiDAR data) are split into several disjoint subsets. Third, data transformation is applied to each subset and the features extracted in each subset are stacked as the input of a random forest (RF) classifier. Three data transformation methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), linearity preserving projection (LPP), and unsupervised graph fusion (UGF) are introduced into the ensemble classification process. Finally, we integrate the classification results achieved at each step by a majority vote. Experimental results on co-registered HS and LiDAR-derived DSM demonstrate the effectiveness and potentialities of the proposed ensemble classifier.

  17. P. Ghamisi and N. Yokoya, " IMG2DSM: Height simulation from single imagery using conditional generative adversarial nets ," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 794-798, 2018.
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    Abstract: This paper proposes a groundbreaking approach in the remote sensing community to simulating digital surface model (DSM) from a single optical image. This novel technique uses conditional generative adversarial nets whose architecture is based on an encoder-decoder network with skip connections (generator) and penalizing structures at the scale of image patches (discriminator). The network is trained on scenes where both DSM and optical data are available to establish an image-to-DSM translation rule. The trained network is then utilized to simulate elevation information on target scenes where no corresponding elevation information exists. The capability of the approach is evaluated both visually (in terms of photo interpretation) and quantitatively (in terms of reconstruction errors and classification accuracies) on sub-decimeter spatial resolution datasets captured over Vaihingen, Potsdam, and Stockholm. The results confirm the promising performance of the proposed framework.

  18. N. Yokoya, P. Ghamisi, J. Xia, S. Sukhanov, R. Heremans, I. Tankoyeu, B. Bechtel, B. Le Saux, G. Moser, and D. Tuia, " Open data for global multimodal land use classification: Outcome of the 2017 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sens., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1363-1377, 2018.
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    Abstract: In this paper, we present the scientific outcomes of the 2017 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. The 2017 Contest was aimed at addressing the problem of local climate zones classification based on a multitemporal and multimodal dataset, including image (Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2) and vector data (from OpenStreetMap). The competition, based on separate geographical locations for the training and testing of the proposed solution, aimed at models that were accurate (assessed by accuracy metrics on an undisclosed reference for the test cities), general (assessed by spreading the test cities across the globe), and computationally feasible (assessed by having a test phase of limited time). The techniques proposed by the participants to the Contest spanned across a rather broad range of topics, and of mixed ideas and methodologies deriving from computer vision and machine learning but also deeply rooted in the specificities of remote sensing. In particular, rigorous atmospheric correction, the use of multidate images, and the use of ensemble methods fusing results obtained from different data sources/time instants made the difference.

  19. B. Le Saux, N. Yokoya, R. Hansch, and S. Prasad, " 2018 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest: Multimodal land use classification ," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 52-54, 2018.
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Conference Papers

  1. W. He, Q. Yao, C. Li, N. Yokoya, and Q. Zhao, "Non-local meets global: An integrated paradigm for hyperspectral denoising," Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
  2. W. He, L. Yuan, and N. Yokoya, "Total-variation-regularized tensor ring completion for remote sensing image reconstruction," International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2019.
  3. V. Ferraris, N. Yokoya, N. Dobigeon, and M. Chabert, "A comparative study of fusion-based change detection methods for multi-band images with different spectral and spatial resolutions," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2018.
  4. J. Xia, N. Yokoya, and A. Iwasaki, "Boosting for domain adaptation extreme learning machines for hyperspectral image classification," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2018.
  5. D. Hong, N. Yokoya, J. Xu, and X. X. Zhu, "Joint & progressive learning from high-dimensional data for multi-label classification," European Conference on Computer Vision, 2018.